In our world lack of clean water is a big issue. The United Nations reported last year that now, in the world, more than 780 million peoples are unable to access clean drinking water. More people are dying every year due to unclean water.
A defense contractor which makes jet fighters and lethal missiles found a way to remove salt from sea water and to get clean water. This is a process in which filter manufacturers produce thin carbon membranes with holes. These holes are barely a nanometer in size. A nanometer is a unit of size roughly similar to a billionth of a meter. These carbon membranes allow water to pass through holes, but the holes are small to block molecules of salt in seawater. The pure carbon sheet is very thin, known as grapheme, and so it takes less energy to filter sea water, but requires more force to separate salt from sea water. Grapheme is a substance which is similar to the lead in pencils.
In the picture shown, a sheet of corrugated grapheme just one atom thick can be seen. It can filter sea water easily with less energy. In this carbon atoms are tied together in a diaphanous which creates a smooth film that looks beautiful and continuous.
Engineers suggested this process that resulted in a sheet which is thinner and stronger than today’s best filter available in the market. It also requires less energy and less pressure to filter salt from sea water. Required energy depends on thickness. The thickness determines how much energy in the reverse osmosis process has to be used. Jeffrey Grossman who is an associate professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology said that a grapheme sheet in which hole size is a nanometer can produce major advancements in desalination efficiency. Jeffrey Grossman has done research on grapheme membranes for filtration of water.